Marine Protected Areas
Marine Protected Area's (MPAs) have long been a feature of overseas coastal marine management with the USA (Georges Bank), New Zealand (Leigh Marine Reserve) and Australia (Great Barrier Reef) being prominent examples. Most are legally enforceable. Scotland is notable for its lack of marine protected areas and reluctance to introduce progressive management measures. This section brings together reports and papers from overseas MPAs and reserves.
Marine reserves are defined as ocean areas that are fully protected from activities that remove animals and plants or alter habitats, except as needed for scientific monitoring. Examples of prohibited activities are fishing, aquaculture, dredging, and mining; activities such as swimming, boating, and scuba diving are usually allowed.
Marine reserves receive permanent protection, rather than seasonal or short-term protection. Because marine reserves protect habitats and the diversity of animals and plants that live in those habitats, marine reserves are a form of ecosystem protection that produces different outcomes from other management tools. As with any form of management, a marine reserve is only effective if its protection is enforced.
2003, To what extent does upright sessile epifauna affect benthic biodiversity and community composition?
C. Bradshaw P. Collins A. R. Brand
2002, Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat
Committee on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies and National Research Council.
2001, The effect of scallop dredging on Irish Sea benthos: experiments using a closed area
C. Bradshaw, L.O. Veale, A.S. Hill & A.R. Brand
2000, Large scale closed areas as a fishery-management tool in temperate marine systems: The Georges Bank Experience
S. A. Murawski, R. Brown, H.-L. Lai, P. J. Rago and L. Hendrickson